Hybrid vehicles use two power sources to enable locomotion. Vehicular transmission is enabled by either of the two power sources at any point or both power sources at the same time .The vantage point of either power source may be the weak point of the other, therefore the two power sources are complementary in nature to each other. For instance, the hybrid of a gasoline-electric hybrid car is more efficient in that it reduces pollution and maximizes on mileage yet overcomes the shortcomings found in an electric car. Classification of hybrid cars.
- In parallel hybrid cars, the transmission can be enabled by both the gasoline engine and electric motor at the same time Gasoline from the fuel tank and battery energy to power the electric motor are in use at the same time to cause transmission.
- In Series hybrid cars, the gasoline engine causes a generator to turn, which other charges the battery to power the motor or directly powers the electric motor which then drives the transmission. It is therefore not possible in series hybrid cars for the gasoline engine to power the vehicle directly. Components of The gasoline-electric hybrid car
In electric cars, electricity is provided by batteries which turns an electric motor. The motor then turns the transmission to cause locomotion. In gasoline-powered cars, the engine derive gas from a gasoline tank. Combustion of the gas in the engine results in energy to turn the transmission to avail locomotion. In a hybrid, a smaller and more effective gas engine plus an electric engine works systematically for heightened efficiency. Gasoline-electric hybrid cars contain the following parts:
Electric motor — in most hybrids, it is made of a complicated design that allows it to function both as a motor and as a generator. It draws energy from the batteries to accelerate (motor) the car and it also slows down the car to recharge the batteries (generator).
Generator — found mainly in series hybrids, its purpose is to generate power to turn the transmission or to store, in the batteries
Fuel tank — herein, gasoline to power the gas engine is stored. Gasoline engine — it is much smaller than normal gas engines in other cars and hence more efficient. It also has a lower rate of emission and pollution
Batteries — these are for storage of energy for the electric motors
Transmission — just like in the normal car, the transmission is what causes locomotion upon being turned. Performance Efficiency in hybrid cars arises from the size of the gasoline engine.
A smaller engine than the convectional vehicle engine is more effective the translation of the cylinders is smaller, hence much less fuel is required by each cylinder in smaller engines. In smaller engines, the pistons and other internal components are lighter, hence require less energy every time they go up and down in the cylinder. In acceleration or when driving up a hill, a smaller engine uses less energy ultimately as it is lighter.
Practical driving test is necessary for a driver switching from the convectional to hybrid vehicles as one needs to know how best to optimize their performance and save energy as well as reduce pollution.